We acknowledge and are grateful for the research of our partners and community in the compilation of these resources.

On March 14, CCNC-TO and University of Toronto released a new report on anti-Asian racism during the COVID-19 pandemic highlighting the experiences of members of Toronto’s Chinese Canadian community

The report 2020 in Hindsight: Intergenerational conversations on Anti-Asian Racism during the COVID-19 pandemic fills a gap in community-based research focused on first person accounts of experiences of anti-Asian racism and stories of resistance. It also clearly outlines Calls to Action — for governments, for schools, for those in the social work and human services fields, and others — to address anti-Asian racism on the ground.

2020 in Hindsight is an important supplement to two national studies, released by CCNCTO and its partners in 2021 and 2022, which documented increased interpersonal racist attacks toward Asian communities across Canada during the pandemic.

While the study’s participants reported that their experiences of anti-Asian racism were pervasive, they also shared that it was not always easy for them to voice what was happening in part due to pressures to conform to the stereotype of the model minority, which discourages one from vocalizing negative experiences. Some also worried that their experiences would not be considered valid, while others expressed that it was difficult to speak about experiences of racism with family members. These pressures, concerns and challenges contributed to a sense of “Wu Nai” or a feeling of hopelessness or helplessness among the participants.

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For many older adults in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), the wait for access to long-term care is intolerably long. Improving access to long-term care is important for any Ontarian needing care at the right time and at the right place. What is equally important, however, is embedding equity into the roadmap to improve access to care for all Ontarians. If we want a long-term care system to provide equitable access to care, it is critical to understand whether there are any disparities in accessing care in the current system. This report describes disparities in long-term care wait times across the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), using administrative data from the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC) from 2012/2013 to 2017/2018. This study explores whether wait times vary by region, age, gender, language, residence type, and client’s level of care needs, and whether any existing disparities have changed over time.

The results in this report should draw the attention of those hoping to improve the healthcare system to ensure better service and better health outcomes for older Ontarians. Timely access to the right care is so important for the health and well-being of older adults and their family caregivers. In reforming our healthcare system, it is crucial to recognize the existing disparities in wait times, particularly regional disparities, and better understand the source of these inequities. Importantly, with the growing diversity in older population, advancing health and well-being of all Ontarians requires significant work towards improving timely, fair access to culturally appropriate care in the long-term care system. READ REPORT >>

In response to addressing the growing anti-Asian racism that has intensified amidst COVID-19, our organizations: the Chinese Canadian National Council – Toronto Chapter; Chinese Canadian National Council Social Justice; Chinese and Southeast Asian Legal Clinic; and, Civic Engagement Network – Society of Canada – have come together to create Fight COVID Racism, a website platform dedicated to tracking and reporting anti-Asian racism and xenophobia in Canada.

This project aims to validate the spectrum of experiences felt across Asian Canadian communities and seeks to use the documentation to inform future efforts for collective action against anti-Asian racism and xenophobia. READ REPORTS >>


Created by the Chinese Canadian National Council – Toronto Chapter (CCNC-TO), this report aims to highlight the experiences of work and life during the COVID-19 pandemic for Chinese Canadian frontline workers and discusses some social and policy changes that are necessary to adequately support Chinese Canadian immigrant working class communities. We focus on how Chinese Canadian immigrant frontline workers have been impacted by COVID-19

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As a result of a series of anti-Asian hate incidents, a university-wide forum was immediately initiated by the U of T Asian Alliance which brought together students, staff, faculty, key administrative members, and representatives from various Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion (EDI) departments and groups across three U of T campuses; and createdA Path Forward: Creating Safe & Inclusive Spaces at U of T’, a recommendation report to the University which contextualized the forum and represents the collective concerns and insights of the event. The report shares the personal and communal impacts of anti-Asian racism and identifies where the University of Toronto administration, systems, and attitudes need to improve.

The U of T Asian Alliance has worked with the Anti-Racism and Cultural Diversity Office (ARCDO) to create the newly commissioned Anti-Asian Racism Working Group” to work towards the implementation of the 12 recommendations which provides invaluable insight into the breadth of issues and experiences that require great consideration across all anti-racism working groups and relevant faculty members, to ensure these recommendations inform planning that encompasses educational programming as well as institutional initiatives that advances the EDI’s efforts and principles of equity, diversity, and inclusion across its campuses. Read report >>

This report was created and commissioned by, Friends of Chinatown Toronto to research and document the patterns of neighbourhood change, gentrification, and displacement within the Downtown Chinatown community. In recent years, the community has identified an urgent need to address the loss of affordable housing, culturally competent businesses, and similar assets valued by the culturally unique community of Downtown Chinatown.

The objective of this project is to gather sentiments about neighbourhood change in Downtown Chinatown and formalize them in a planning rationale that advocates for increased Community Control. Using multiple research methods, with a particular focus on key informant interviews, we identified several key findings that serve this purpose. Read Report >>

Stark Truths is an eye-opening exposé on the state of housing in the North, as told by Indigenous community members who face rampant human rights violations every day in their search for safe, secure, and affordable housing.

Over the last year, Janine Harvey and Lisa Alikamik, two Inuit right to housing advocates, travelled across the Northwest Territories and Nunavut to conduct culturally appropriate interviews with Indigenous community members, gathering their stories and first-hand experiences of what it’s like trying to find affordable, safe, and secure housing in the North.

With funding from the Catherine Donnelly Foundation, the resulting report centres the stories and proposed solutions brought forward by northern and remote Indigenous communities facing some of the most egregious human rights violations in Canada.

The powerful, heartbreaking, and stark truths told by northern and remote Indigenous communities throughout this report demonstrate the pervasive and ongoing impacts of systemic neglect and colonialism, while calling for urgent, culturally appropriate, and human rights-based government action and collaboration with these communities in the North. These stories also serve as an important submission to the Federal Housing Advocate as she works to address systemic right to housing issues across Canada.

A true human rights approach begins by listening to those most affected by issues of housing inadequacy and homelessness. This report presents an opportunity for the federal government, new Housing Minister, and civil society to hear directly from the peoples of the North who are facing human rights violations every day—and have been absent from our policy decisions for far too long.

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In collaboration with teachers, students, and families from Asian Canadian communities across the GTA, our Fighting Racism in Canada Educator’s Tools was developed to help students, grade 4 and up, understand racism and how to confront/address it safely in their communities.

Our toolkit and resources include a two-part video series, 6 infographics and additional resources and citations for educators and adults to support further learning.

Check out our Community Conversations video series which is a collection  of interviews reflecting on the effects of systemic racism from a multi-generational perspective between youths and families.

Our toolkit and video series are available in traditional and simplified Chinese, English, French, Korean, Tagalog, and Vietnamese.


Presented by our partners, Council of Agencies Serving South Asians (CASSA) , #EradicateHate is dedicated to building capacity through digital literacy to both effectively combat racialized online hate and provide content support to those who become victims. 


Elementary Teachers’ Federation of Ontario (ETFO) and Toronto District School Board (TDSB) have partnered to develop Addressing Anti-Asian Racism: A Resource for Educators, a resource to empower educators to take action against anti-Asian racism.

Addressing Anti-Asian Racism: A Resource for Educators provides a foundation for reflection, discussion and social justice action, and centres Indigeneity and Black lives within the document. It also solidifies the work of anti-racism as a practice and approach through understanding, interconnecting and allying multiple identities and issues.

This resource was created by a team of educators of Asian descent whose lived experiences, both personal and professional, and knowledge and passion for social justice are reflected in its pages. The resource includes: conceptual frameworks, knowledge and issues; a toolkit for school leaders and educators; and community resources and relevant policies.


The Ontario Human Rights Code was established in 1962 to make Ontario a place that recognizes the dignity and worth of every person, where people are able to enjoy equal rights and opportunities without discrimination. On June 15, 2022, the Code turns 60. For the past 60 years, the Ontario Human Rights Commission (OHRC) has been working to protect, promote and advance human rights in the province through education, policy development, public inquiries and litigation. We are not doing this work alone. Many people across Ontario are also making important contributions to advance human rights and equity – and we invite all Ontarians to celebrate these contributions. Read Policy and Guidelines >>

The Pyramid shows biased behaviors, growing in complexity from the bottom to the top. Although the behaviors at each level negatively impact individuals and groups, as one moves up the pyramid, the behaviors have more life-threatening consequences. Like a pyramid, the upper levels are supported by the lower levels. If people or institutions treat behaviors on the lower levels as being acceptable or “normal,” it results in the behaviors at the next level becoming more accepted. In response to the questions of the world community about where the hate of genocide comes from, the Pyramid of Hate demonstrates that the hate of genocide is built upon the acceptance of behaviors described in the lower levels of the pyramid. VIEW PYRAMID OF HATE >>

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: 94 Calls to Action (Chinese Translation)

此中文版由加拿大文化更新研究中心翻譯, 是本機構對原住民真相與和解表示關注和作出貢獻,讓加拿大華人和移民社區用母語去理解加拿大真相與和解委員會報告的94行動呼籲。如有任何歧義,請以英文原版 Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Calls to Action 爲準。在全國真相與和解中心網頁 查看

This Chinese translated version was developed by the Culture Regeneration Research Society as an act of reconciliation, providing a way for Chinese Canadians and the immigrant community to understand the Truth and Reconciliation 94 Calls to Action in their own language. Please refer to the official English or French version on the website of the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation at for accuracy.


Many newcomers to Canada are unfamiliar with the diversity and richness of the Indigenous cultures in Canada. This article’s purpose is to introduce newcomers to some basic facts about Indigenous people, and some common cultural elements that are shared by many Indigenous groups. There are far too many different Indigenous cultures, nations and languages in Canada for any one person to teach everything there is to know, let alone in one article, but I hope this article will serve as a place to start learning.

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Created in response to the lack of Chinese language anti-racism resources, How to be a Chinese Ally asks its Chinese readers to consider what it means to be an immigrant settler; how to address the internal anti-Black and anti-Indigenous bias within Chinese communities; and how to challenge the model minority concept and its complicity with white supremacy. Contrary to the title, this book makes no attempts to provide a “how-to” guide. Instead, artist Annie Wong, and academic Chen Chen offer an accessible entry point into a practice of learning and unlearning by inviting Chinese readers into intimate conversations among friends, artists, and researchers within the BIPOC community.  

How to be a Chinese Ally includes interviews with Fiona Raye Clarke, seth cardinal dodginghorse, Jae Sterling and Melissa Chung Mowat; essays by the editors, a comic by Jason Li, and translated excerpts from key texts by Robyn Maynard, Gary Pieters, and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Learn more >>

針對反種族主義的中文資源缺乏而創作的《華人怎樣做盟友》要求華人讀者考慮 成為移民定居者意味著什麽;如何解決 華人社區內部的反黑人和反原住民偏見;以及如何挑戰模範少數族裔概念及其與白人至上主義的共謀。與標題相反, 本書並未嘗試提供“操作方法”指南。相反,藝術家黃秀盈和學者陳晨通過邀請華人讀者進入BIPOC社區的朋友、藝術家和研究人員之間的親密對話,為學習和忘卻的實踐提供了一個可行的切入點。

《華人怎樣做盟友》包括對Fiona Raye Clarke、Jae Sterling和Melissa Chung Mowat的采訪;編輯的文章,Jason Li的漫畫,以及Robyn Maynard、Gary Pieters和真相與和解委員會的關鍵文本的翻譯節選。《華人怎樣做盟友》是與陳晨合作製作的,也是黃秀盈在安大略省萬錦市Varley藝術館的社區藝術家駐場項目的一部分,以及卡爾加裏市公共藝術項目與新畫廊合作委托的卡爾加裏中國城藝術家駐場項目。該書的免費PDF版本可以在線領取 >>  | 音频版 >>

Whose Land is a web-based app that uses GIS technology to assist users in identifying Indigenous Nations, territories, and Indigenous communities across Canada. The app can be used for learning about the territory your home or business is situated on, finding information for a land acknowledgement, and learning about the treaties and agreements signed across Canada. Educational videos are available to watch that will give you a better understanding of why land acknowledgements are important, and the way Indigenous people view their relationship to land. The app consists of six different maps of Indigenous territories, Treaties, and First Nations, Inuit, and Metis communities. Each community’s location will eventually host a land acknowledgement video, and other information that the community would like to include on their page. The app will be used as an educational tool to create dialogue around reconciliation. It will be a starting point for conversation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous citizens across this country about land, territorial recognition and land acknowledgement. ACCESS WHOSE LAND APP >>

The Canadian Race Relations Foundation maintains a glossary with definitions of key concepts relevant to race relations, the promotion of Canadian identity, belonging and the mutuality of citizenship rights and responsibilities.

This list includes many of the terms commonly used in anti-racism and equity discourse today. They are gleaned from a variety of sources, most of which are listed below. Many of the terms have been in the public domain so long that the source of the original definition is no longer known as they have come into common parlance. The terminology in this field is constantly evolving, so the list remains a work in progress. Should any discrepancies arise during a training session or discussion, it is best to take a moment to determine the current understanding and why people may be more comfortable adding further definitions to the list in the present context.  Access Glossary >>

Big Fight in Little Chinatown, directed by, Karen Cho, is a story of community resistance and resilience. Set against the backdrop of the COVID pandemic and an unprecedented rise in anti-Asian racism, the documentary takes us into the lives of residents, businesses and community organizers whose neighborhoods are facing active erasure.

Coast to Coast the film follows Chinatown communities resisting the pressures around them. From the construction of the world’s largest vertical jail in New York, Montreal’s fight against developers swallowing up the most historic block of their Chinatown, big box chains and gentrification forces displacing Toronto’s community, to a Vancouver Chinatown business holding steadfast, the film reveals how Chinatown is both a stand-in for other communities who’ve been wiped off the city map, and the blueprint for inclusive and resilient neighbourhoods of the future.

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A thesis by Patrick Wen Rui Leong on the complete history of the Anti-W5 movement in 1979-80.

An 11-minute television program mobilized the Chinese community into an unprecedented social movement in Chinese Canadian history. A landmark in the fight against racism was the national protest of a CTV current events program, W5. Aired on September 30, 1979, “Campus Giveaway” infuriated the community by portraying the Chinese as foreign- ers who were allegedly squeezing white Canadian students out of professional schools. According to the program, Chinese foreigners, educated and financed by Canadian taxpayers, returned to Hong Kong and China with their professional degrees. In the opening remarks, the Chinese threat was strongly emphasized:

Suppose your son or daughter wanted to be an engineer, or a doctor, or a pharmacist. Suppose he had high marks in high school, and that you could pay the tuition but he still couldn’t get into university in his chosen courses because a foreign student was taking his place. Well, that is exactly what is happening in the country.

Not counting the statistical and factual errors that were uttered, the program focused its cameras on Chinese faces belonging to “foreign students.” Later, the group was identified as one student who was a Canadian-born Chinese, the rest being Canadian citizens. The implication was that students of Chinese origin were foreigners, not Canadians, regardless of their Canadian citizenship or birth. This was an example of irresponsible journalism at its worst.

Protests came first from students, who bombarded CTV with letters of protest. Legal advice was sought to determine if CTV had libelled Chinese Canadians. Soon, others in the community joined the outcry, among them Cheuk Kwan, Dr. Joseph Wong, and Dr. Donald Chu, who later headed the Ad Hoc Committee of the Council of Chinese Canadians in Ontario Against W5, the Toronto chapter of the anti-W5 movement. Meetings were held at the Mon Sheong Home for the Aged and the Cecil Community Centre. Protesters marched to CTV’s national headquarters and carried placards with slogans to show their anger: “CTV Apologize Now! Biased Show, W5 Got to Go!”56 Busloads of supporters from other cities and over 160 organizations joined the Toronto protest to defend the rights not only of Chinese but of all ethnic people. Although Toronto was the centre of the anti-W5 movement, protests were held across the country and 16 Ad Hoc Committees were established in major cities where CTV operated.


The Chinese in Toronto from 1878 by Arlene Chan

Campus Giveaway

The National Collaborating Centre for Indigenous Health (NCCIH) is a national Indigenous organization established in 2005 by the Government of Canada and funded through the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) to support First Nations, Inuit, and Métis public health renewal and health equity through knowledge translation and exchange. The NCCIH is hosted by the University of Northern BC (UNBC) in Prince George, BC.

This series of three fact sheets focuses on racism experienced by Indigenous peoples in Canada – how to understand it in historical context, how it affects individuals and communities, and what programs, policies and strategies exist to combat it.

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There are many organizational and educational resources devoted to the promotion and awareness of human rights. Below you will find some resources providing insightful information on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and human rights in Canada.

Educational resources
Organizational resources


Chinese & Southeast Asian Legal Clinic (CSALC) provides free legal advice and referrals primarily in the areas of: immigration, tenant’s rights, employment standards, human rights, employment insurance, Canada Pension Plan, old age security and social assistance (Ontario Works and Ontario Disability Support Program).

This clinic is best suited for those seeking legal advice/representation in Toronto or the Greater Toronto area, who cannot communicate fluently in English and are Chinese, Vietnamese, Khmer, or Laotian speaking, and who have a legal problem in an area of law that they practice.

They also provide Public Legal Education in different areas of law, support for community groups, and engages in advocacy to bring about law reform and broader change for our communities.

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Chinese Christian Mission (CCM) Toronto Centre is one of the 6 community service centres under the umbrella of CCM Canada, running a variety of services and programs for all age groups, families, youth and children, and those with special mental health, spiritual or emotional needs.

Established in 2021, we are a group of Christian lawyers, paralegals, law clerks and professionals of other disciplines who respond to Christ’s calling to serve our fellow neighbours and communities, regardless of their faith backgrounds, who need accessible legal assistance in their personal challenges and be a voice for the oppressed.

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The Centre for Immigrant and Community Services (CICS) is a not-for-profit organization and a registered charity that provides core settlement and integration services at eight locations across Toronto and York Region, serving more than 20,000 clients every year from early years children to seniors. CICS offers a full range of community services including employment, language training and settlement services, as well as a community garden and food programs. CICS is also committed to building welcoming and inclusive communities by being a strong advocate for social justice and anti-racism. 

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Chinese Family Services of Ontario (CFSO) is a not-for-profit organization that helps build a safe and harmonious community by providing professional counselling and settlement services to individuals and families in need.

CFSO is staffed by a team of professionals in the disciplines of social work, psychology, and counselling registered with the Ontario College of Social Workers along with social service workers, settlement workers, information and referral specialists, and certified gambling counsellors.

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To confront racism we need to make our voices and experiences heard. If you have faced discrimination, violence, and/or racism as a result of COVID-19 you can report it by using the, a confidential reporting tool that aims to bring together a better understanding of the national picture of anti-Asian racism arising from COVID-19 in aggregate analysis.

This is a national project led by Project 1907 and the Chinese Canadian National Council Toronto Chapter (CCNC-TO) along with several Chinese Canadian organizations across Canada.

Report an incident >>

 Formerly HOLLABACK!, RIGHT TO BE provides free training to the public and customized training experiences for businesses, organizations, schools, and colleges.

Training is oriented to empower you to make a change and channel attention into simple, creative, and effective action. You will find tools to learn how to respond, intervene, and heal from harassment. By empowering you with the resources you need to take care of yourself and others because everyone has the right to be who we are, wherever we are.


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