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Citations

Thank you to the following reviewers for their feedback: Pamala Agawa, Joe Gallagher, Rachel Mishenene, Maria Montejo, Michelle Zante, and the Elementary Teachers of Toronto (ETT).

Bell, L. A. (2016). Theorizing foundations for social justice education. In M. Adams, L. A. Bell, D. J. Goodman, & K. Y. Joshi (Eds.), Teaching for diversity and social justice (pp. 3-26). New York, NY: Routledge. 

 

Bell, M. K. (2016). Teaching at the intersections. Retrieved from https://www.learningforjustice.org/magazine/summer-2016/teaching-at-the-intersections 

 

Bivens, D. K. (2005). Chapter 5: What is internalized racism? In Flipping the script: White privilege and community building. [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://philanthropynewyork.org/sites/default/files/files/events/What_is_Internalized_Racism.pdf 

 

Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (n.d). CRRF Glossary of terms. Retrieved from https://www.crrf-fcrr.ca/en/resources/glossary-a-terms-en-gb-1

 

Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and anti-racism politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 140, 139-167.

 

Crenshaw, K. (2015, September 24). Opinion: Why intersectionality can’t wait. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/in-theory/wp/2015/09/24/why-intersectionality-cant-wait/?utm_term=.b573cc74a98f

 

Este, D., Lorenzetti, L., & Sato, C. (2018). Racism and anti-racism in Canada. Winnipeg, MB: Fernwood Publishing.

 

Gaffney, C. (2016). Anatomy of an ally. Retrieved from https://www.tolerance.org/magazine/summer-2016/ana tomy-of-an-ally 

 

Global News. (2019, September 25). What is internalized racism? [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RBrW129hKmg&ab_channel=GlobalNews 

 

Government of Ontario. (2017). A better way forward: Ontario’s 3-year anti-racism strategic plan [PDF file]. Toronto, ON: Queen’s Printer for Ontario. Retrieved from https://files.ontario.ca/ar-2001_ard_report_tagged_final-s.pdf

 

Hammond, Z. (2015). Culturally responsive teaching and the brain: Promoting authentic engagement and rigor among culturally and linguistically diverse students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

 

Inclusion Education Summit. (2017). Implementing inclusion in BC’s public schools [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://inclusionbc.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Implementing_Inclusion_Education.pdf 

 

Kalvapalle, R. (2020, September 11).’This is a Canadian problem, too’: U of T’s Maydianne Andrade on finding the will to address anti-Black racism. U of T News. Retrieved from https://www.utoronto.ca/news/canadian-problem-too-u-t-s-maydianne-andrade-finding-will-address-anti-black-racism

 

Knight, D. (2015). “What’s ‘colorism’?” Retrieved from https://www.learningforjustice.org/magazine/fall-2015/whats-colorism 

 

Kwong, E. (2018, August 29). Tossing, hiding or being shunned for ‘stinky’ school lunches: 8 Canadians on the ethnic food they were embarrassed to eat in class. Toronto Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/life/food_wine/2018/08/29/tossing-hiding-or-being-shunned-for-stinky-school-lunches-8-canadians-on-the-ethnic-food-they-were-embarassed-to-eat-in-class.html 

 

Learning for Justice. (2016, May 18). Intersectionality 101 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/w6dnj2IyYjE 

 

Liang, K. (2011, September 1). Racial slurs (chink). Northwest Asian Weekly. Retrieved from http://nwasianweekly.com/2011/09/racial-slurs-chink/ 

 

Lopes, T., & Thomas, B. (2006). Dancing on live embers: Challenging racism in organizations. Toronto, ON: Between the Lines.

 

May, S. & Sleeter, C. E. (2010). Introduction. In S. May & C. E. Sleeter (Eds.), Critical multiculturalism: Theory and praxis (pp. 1-16). New York, NY: Routledge.

 

Miller, J., & Chan-Smitham, B. (2020, July) Bystander intervention to stop anti-Asian/American and xenophobia harassment. hollaback! and Asian Americans Advancing Justice. Virtual workshop hosted on Zoom. 

 

MP Associates, Center for Assessment and Policy Development, and World Trust Educational Services. (2019). Racial equity tools: Glossary [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://www.racialequitytools.org/resourcefiles/RET_Glossary_Updated_October_2019_.pdf

 

National Center on Education and the Economy. (n.d.). Canada: Supporting equity. Retrieved from https://ncee.org/what-we-do/center-on-international-education-benchmarking/top-performing-countries/canada-overview/canada-education-for-all/ 

 

Nickelodeon. (2020). Kids, race and unity: Vocabulary list for parents and students [PDF file]. Retrieved from http://www.nick.com/nick-assets/properties/kids-race-and-unity/TOWN_HALL_VOCAB_GUIDES_R1_REV_6.29.pdf

 

Ontario Human Rights Commission. (n.d.). Racial discrimination, race and racism (fact sheet). Retrieved from http://www.ohrc.on.ca/en/racial-discrimination-race-and-racism-fact-sheet  

 

Ontario Ministry of Education. (2014). Equity and inclusive education in Ontario schools: Guidelines for policy development and implementation. Toronto, ON: Queen’s Printer for Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/policyfunding/inclusiveguide.pdf 

 

Ontario Ministry of Education. (2017). Ontario’s education equity action plan. Toronto, ON: Queen’s Printer for Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/about/education_equity_plan_en.pdf

 

People for Education. (n.d.). Equity: Developing competencies, changing trajectories. Retrieved from https://peopleforeducation.ca/mwm-sharing-the-thinking/equity-insight/ 

 

Sen, R. (2017, December 19). How to do intersectionality. The Independent. Retrieved from https://theindependent.io/rinkusen/politics/how-to-do-intersectionality-VMDT82Ef0kKj0pMsNo-ulQ 

 

Sue, D. W. (2010). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Race, gender, and sexual orientation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

 

The Conscious Kid. (n.d.). Racial literacy key terms. Retrieved from https://www.theconsciouskid.org/racial-literacy-key-terms


The Icarus Project. (2015). Madness & oppression [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://fireweedcollective.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/MadnessAndOppressionGuide.pdf

Adler, M. (2020, February 24). Hit hard, Scarborough Chinese businesses hope to beat COVID-19 fears. toronto.com. Retrieved from https://www.toronto.com/news-story/9857268-hit-hard-scarborough-chinese-businesses-hope-to-beat-covid-19-fears/ 

 

Angus Reid Institute. (2020). Blame, bullying and disrespect: Chinese Canadians reveal their experiences with racism during COVID 19. Retrieved from http://angusreid.org/racism-chinese-canadians-covid19/?fbclid=IwAR3DNeRqj7knBClMu2ismWpYSE5NwWlGQwjtGd8HWNnFQTh3zfOVqRspOL0

 

Bamboo Shoots: Chinese Canadian Legacies in BC. (2015). Historical Backgrounders [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://www.openschool.bc.ca/bambooshoots/teacher/Bamboo_Shoots_Historical_Backgrounders.pdf

 

CBC Digital Archives. (1980, January 22). Chinese immigrants protest racism on TV [Video file]. Retrieved from

https://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/chinese-immigration-protesting-racism-on-tv

 

CBC Radio. (2020, February 21). ‘I was humiliated’: Chinese Canadian remembers racist reaction to SARS epidemic. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/radio/tapestry/recovering-from-a-crisis-1.5471233/i-was-humiliated-chinese-canadian-remembers-racist-reaction-to-sars-epidemic-1.5471741

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS): Basics fact sheet. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/sars/about/fs-sars.html

 

Chan, A. (2020). Chinese Head Tax in Canada. In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/chinese-head-tax-in-canada 

 

Chan, A. (2017). Chinese Immigration Act. In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/chinese-immigration-act 

 

Chinese Canadian National Council for Social Justice. (2020). Building resilience. Retrieved from https://ccncsj.ca/building-resilience/

 

Chinese Canadian National Council for Social Justice. (2020). Face race. Retrieved from https://ccncsj.ca/campaigns-facerace/

 

Chung, T. I. (2014). Early transpacific Chinese travelers and today’s British Columbia. Retrieved from https://curious.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/early-transpacific-chinese-travelers-and-todays-british-columbia/ 

 

Coloma, R. S. (2017). “Too Asian?”: On racism, paradox, and ethno-nationalism. In R. S. Coloma & G. Pon (Eds), Asian Canadian studies reader (pp. 363-382). Toronto: ON: University of Toronto Press.

 

Fight COVID-19 Racism. (n.d.). Resources. Retrieved from https://www.covidracism.ca/resources 

 

Government of British Columbia. (n.d.). Gold Mountain. Retrieved from https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/governments/multiculturalism-anti-racism/chinese-legacy-bc/history/gold-mountain 

 

Government of Canada. (2017). History of Canada’s early Chinese immigrants. Retrieved from https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/immigration/history-ethnic-cultural/early-chinese-canadians/Pages/history.aspx 

 

Health Canada. (2003). Learning from SARS: Renewal of public health in Canada [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/migration/phac-aspc/publicat/sars-sras/pdf/sars-e.pdf

 

Jan. T. (2020, May 19). Asian American doctors and nurses are fighting racism and the coronavirus. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2020/05/19/asian-american-discrimination/ 

 

Kline, A., & Kovac, A. (2020, April 2). Asian Montrealers say they’ve increasingly been victims of racism during COVID-19 crisis. CTV News. Retrieved from https://montreal.ctvnews.ca/asian-montrealers-say-they-ve-increasingly-been-victims-of-racism-during-covid-19-crisis-1.4880671 

 

Kozlowska, H. (2020, March 25). How anti-Chinese sentiment is spreading on social media. Quartz. Retrieved from https://qz.com/1823608/how-anti-china-sentiment-is-spreading-on-social-media/

 

Laurier News Hub. (2020). Vancouver anti-Asian riots of 1907 and the parallels to Canada’s modern-day racial divide. Retrieved from https://www.wlu.ca/news/spotlights/2020/nov/vancouver-anti-asian-riots-of-1907-and-the-parallels-to-canadas-modern-day-racial-divide.html 

 

Leach, J. (2020, May 14). From SARS to COVID-19: Putting the spotlight on anti-Asian racism. Ryerson Today. Retrieved from https://www.ryerson.ca/news-events/news/2020/05/from-sars-to-covid-19-putting-the-spotlight-on-anti-asian-racism/

 

Lee, J. (2020, August 12). Chinese Canadians share their experiences of racism during COVID-19. Maclean’s. Retrieved from https://www.macleans.ca/society/chinese-canadians-share-their-experiences-of-racism-during-covid-19/?fbclid=IwAR3iCDooqUzBW6QhRLM8ekMRffuIBXGOt2-EFRNrNfsfyxIZ4HBNKAQI9vo#gallery/covid-racism/slide-6 

 

Little, S. (2020, February 17). Vancouver’s Chinese-Canadian businesses report up to 70% business drop amid virus fears. Global News. Retrieved from https://globalnews.ca/news/6560530/vancouver-chinatown-business-drop-coronavirus/ 

 

Luk, V. (2010, December 3). ‘Too Asian?’ Why I don’t accept the apology by Maclean’s. The Tyee. Retrieved from https://thetyee.ca/Opinion/2010/12/03/TooAsianApology/ 

 

McCullough, K. (2020, February 11). Chinese restaurants in GTA see large drop in sales in weeks after coronavirus outbreak. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/toronto/article-chinese-restaurants-in-gta-see-large-drop-in-sales-in-weeks-after/ 

 

McRae, M. (2020). The Chinese head tax and the Chinese Exclusion Act. Retrieved from https://humanrights.ca/story/the-chinese-head-tax-and-the-chinese-exclusion-act 

 

project 1907. (2020). National collaboration of data collection on anti-Asian racism. Racism Incident Reporting Centre. Retrieved from https://www.project1907.org/reportingcentre

 

Road to Justice. (2011). Taxing the Chinese. Laws. Retrieved from http://www.roadtojustice.ca/laws/chinese-head-tax 

 

Ryerson University. (n.d.). Responding to hate toolkit [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://www.ryerson.ca/content/dam/responding-to-hate/responding_to_hate_toolkit_brochure_8.5x11.pdf 

 

Shin Sharma, C. (2020). Anti-Chinese sentiment in Toronto during pandemic shows the worst of humanity. blogTO. Retrieved from https://www.blogto.com/city/2020/04/anti-chinese-toronto/ 

 

Stanley, T. J. (2014). John A. Macdonald and the invention of white supremacy in Canada. Canadian Issues/Thèmes Canadiens, 29-32.

 

Stanley, T. J. (2016). John A. Macdonald, “the Chinese” and racist state formation in Canada. Journal of Critical Race Inquiry, 3(1), 6-34.

 

The Ties That Bind: Building the CPR, Building a Place in Canada. (2010). Chinese railroad workers. Retrieved from https://www.mhso.ca/tiesthatbind/ChineseRailWorkers.php 

 

The Ties That Bind: Building the CPR, Building a Place in Canada. (2010). Head tax & exclusion. Retrieved from https://www.mhso.ca/tiesthatbind/HeadTaxExclusion.php 

 

Trinh, J. (2020, June 23). Canadian doctors of colour offer a frank look at racism in medicine. CBC News. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/health/racism-canadian-medicine-doctors-1.5615554

 

Tsekouras, P. (2020, April 9). ‘It happened because I’m Asian’: Toronto ER nurse says she was spit on, verbally assaulted. CTV News. Retrieved from https://toronto.ctvnews.ca/it-happened-because-i-m-asian-toronto-er-nurse-says-she-was-spit-on-verbally-assaulted-1.4890363?fbclid=IwAR10uJcOoZje0j1pt_Unvo5BTlNPaoGr40pu2bZqt438rOLL6J62lee8UQ0


Wang, S. (2020, January 31). Business down at Wuhan Noodle restaurant in Markham amid racism, coronavirus fear. Toronto Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2020/01/31/wuhan-noodle-restaurant-in-markham-experiences-racism-amid-coronavirus-fear.html

Dei, G. J. S. (2017). Reframing blackness and black solidarities through anti-colonial and decolonial prisms. New York, NY: Springer.

 

Henry, N. L. (2019). Racial Segregation of Black People in Canada. In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/racial-segregation-of-black-people-in-canada

 

James, C. E., & Turner, T. (2017). Towards race equity in education: The schooling of Black students in the Greater Toronto Area [PDF file]. Toronto, ON: York University.

 

Maynard, R. (2017). Policing Black lives: State violence in Canada from slavery to the present. Winnipeg, MB: Fernwood Publishing.

 

Ontario Human Rights Commission. (2017). Under suspicion: Research and consultation report on racial profiling in Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.ohrc.on.ca/en/under-suspicion-research-and-consultation-report-racial-profiling-ontario 

 

Slaughter, G., & Singh, M. (2020, June 6). Five charts that show what systemic racism looks like in Canada. CTV News. Retrieved from https://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/five-charts-that-show-what-systemic-racism-looks-like-in-canada-1.4970352 


Turner Consulting Group and SNAP. (2018). Adapting the SNAP program for use in the African Canadian community: Report 1: Research report [PDF file]. Retrieved from:  https://cafcan.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Report-1-Research-Report-FINAL-1.pdf

Anderson, T. (2019). Results from the 2016 Census: Housing, income and residential dissimilarity among Indigenous people in Canadian cities. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/75-006-x/2019001/article/00018-eng.htm

 

BBC News. (2017, September 7). Canada First Nation declare drugs state of emergency. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-41192817

 

Canadian Poverty Institute (n.d.). Poverty in Canada. Retrieved from https://www.povertyinstitute.ca/poverty-canada

 

Colonization facts for kids. (2020). In Kiddie Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://kids.kiddle.co/Colonization 

 

Cultural assimilation facts for kids. (2020). In Kiddie Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://kids.kiddle.co/Cultural_assimilation 

 

Edwards, K. (n.d.). Fighting foster care. Maclean’s. Retrieved from https://www.macleans.ca/first-nations-fighting-foster-care/

 

Facing History and Ourselves. (2020). Dispossession, destruction, and the reserves. Retrieved from https://www.facinghistory.org/stolen-lives-indigenous-peoples-canada-and-indian-residential-schools/historical-background/dispossession-destruction-and-reserves

 

Facing History and Ourselves. (2020). The experiences of students. Retrieved from https://www.facinghistory.org/stolen-lives-indigenous-peoples-canada-and-indian-residential-schools/historical-background/experience-students

 

Gerster, J., & Hessey, K. (2019, September 28). Why some First Nations still don’t have clean drinking water - despite Trudeau’s promise. Global News. Retrieved from https://globalnews.ca/news/5887716/first-nations-boil-water-advisories/ 

 

Glover, F. (2020). Residential Schools in Canada. In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/residential-schools-in-canada-plain-language-summary

 

Government of Canada. (2015). Canada’s history. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/corporate/publications-manuals/discover-canada/read-online/canadas-history.html

 

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Indigenous Awareness Canada. (n.d.). What is a reserve? Retrieved from https://indigenousawarenesscanada.com/indigenous-awareness/what-is-a-reserve/

 

Mccue, H. A. (2018). Reserves. In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-reserves 

 

Schiedel, B. (2018, May 15). Why our kids need to learn about residential schools. Maclean’s. Retrieved from https://www.macleans.ca/society/why-our-kids-need-to-learn-about-residential-schools/

Sinclair, N. J. & Dainard, S. (2020). Sixties Scoop. In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/sixties-scoop

 

Sinclair, R. (2021). The Sixties Scoop. Retrieved from http://www.originscanada.org/aboriginal-resources/the-stolen-generation/


Statistics Canada. (2016). Area of resident - On reserve. Retrieved from https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/ref/dict/pop150-eng.cfm

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